Fun with crystals
If you look closely at sugar or salt, you will see it is made up of lots of little crystals. We can ‘grow’ bigger crystals if we start from scratch and let them form slowly. So how do we make a crystal from scratch? We need to dissolve the salt or sugar and then let it recrystalise. You can try out these two experiments to make some rock candy and geodes. Both of these involve boiling water so definitely one for some grown-up help.
Heat a cupful of water in a pan until it is boiling. Then start adding sugar. Stir, add more sugar, stir, add more sugar, stir…you get the idea! Keep going until you cannot get any more to dissolve, this should be at least two cupfuls. This is called a saturated solution. Let the mixture cool down for around 20 minutes then pour into a tall glass. When the solution cools we say it supersaturated, this means it now has more sugar than it can normally hold. It’s ready to start growing crystals! If you hang a bamboo skewer into the glass (use a clothes-peg to keep it in place), crystals of sugar will start to form on the skewer. Remember we need SLOW formation so it will take a few days, perhaps even a week, be patient! It’s really important that it is left undisturbed for this time so put it somewhere out of the way.
Geodes are mineral crystals found inside rocks, we can make our own inside eggshells. Make sure the eggshells are perfectly clean and the membrane has come away from the inside. Make a saturated solution like you did before, you can use sugar or try table salt or Epsom salts, then add a little food colouring. Pop the shells in an eggbox and fill with this solution, the fuller the better but make sure they won’t spill! Leave them somewhere safe to evaporate and in a few days you should see the geodes form! Find out the science behind this at www.fabscience.co.uk/crystals
Emma Ranade spends most of her time exploding things and experimenting at Fab Science birthday parties, holiday clubs and school workshops. www.fabscience.co.uk 07799 624777